Browser [Mobile] not reflecting Webflow Designer(?)

Hey guys,
really hoping someone can help me here - it seems so simple but I just can’t see the issue. In the Webflow designer/preview everything looks great, but when I publish and view on browser - specifically on mobile - it hides an image for some reason (see screenshot).

Here is the shareable link:

If anyone understand what the hell is happening I will be forever greatful :upside_down_face: