Image doesn't show in mobile version

Hi hackers,

Need your help figuring out why jpeg image isn’t showing on mobile even though it shows on google chrome desktop inside the inspector within in the mobile screen size.

In the Express commissions section, the imac mockup image isn’t showing on mobile. I have refreshed multiple times, clear caches and history, checked in safari, chrome, downloaded firefox and brave on mobile and it doesn’t show on any of them.

Here is the share link: Webflow - Youvelop

Here is the published site to see things in inspector. or Resources. Please inspect in incognito mode.

Thank you