the webpage A at https://domain-1.xx/page_1.htm contains a link to a webpage B at https://domain-2.xx/page_2.htm . So just a normal A > B
At a certain point, the webpage B is redirected through a 301 to a webpage C at https://domain-3.xx/page3.htm .
So basically we have A that links B which is redirected to C (three different domains). So it will be A > B > C
The question is: the page rank and domain authority of A that once was “transferred” to B is now fully given to the C page, considering the 301 redir?
In another words A > B > C with a 301 at B is the same of A > C without 301?
PS: I am talking about google serp
Based on Google documentation, Redirect chains are best when reduced to the minimum. And keeping it high level in your example but there are always hidden redirect from www. or http:// .
In short, 3 redirect chain may not impact SEO. Keeping redirects to a single hop is generally best for user experience and for Googlebot to properly follow the redirects.
To answer you question:
Let me clarify a bit what I understood:
A >backlink> B
B >redirect> C
So it becomes: A is backlinked to B and B is redirected to C.
The question: Is the value of the backlink A directed toward C the same with or without B?
Answer: If you can avoid update A and point the backlink to C, it seems the easiest and less risky option.
From an SEO pov, I see a low impact of having the A>B>C scenario, except if you are working on massive websites