Not with Webflow natively. Webflow does have a new Memberships feature but its (current) focus is on gating content versus providing unique content per logged in user.
There are other options. You could use a third party that has this and embed it within Webflow. So you’d be forced to use their look & feel for whatever widget is embedded and keep design control for everything else. Or use solutions that integrate with Webflow. Those would allow you to keep (almost) full design control.