iPhone 6 Safari (old) not displaying image on homepage

Hi everyone!

My homepage image doesn’t display at all on iPhone 6 Safari (old version and cannot update to the latest due to iPhone only running iOS up to 12.5.7). Screenshots:


I’ve tested all default screen sizes in Chrome (Inspect mode) and the image displays correctly for iPhone 6/7/8 and 4 as well. Screenshots:


I cannot download the Chrome app to my iPhone 6 as the older iOS doesn’t support the latest app version. I also have an iPhone XR, and everything is working fine there with Safari. Therefore, I’m assuming the iOS being old on iPhone 6 and limiting Safari to its older version is the root of this problem.

Ref.: “Ensure that you are using the latest version of Safari. Older versions of Safari may lack support for newer CSS properties, JavaScript APIs, or web standards, which could result in rendering discrepancies compared to other browsers. Prompt your Safari users to update their browsers if necessary.” (Safari compatibility issues with Webflow)


Any ideas on how to solve this?

Thanks,
Vivien


Here is my site Read-Only: LINK