Fixing responsive design

I’m really frustrated right now because the mobile view of my website just causes problems.
For instance, sometimes theres too much space between the Headline and the textblock:

then theres too little space:

other times the Elements shift into each other:

and even if it looks good on the editor, it looks different on the phone:

I know that I probably created a mess using spacing / position and absolute/relative wrong but at this point I can’t figure out anymore whats right and whats wrong.

I would really appreciate some help here…

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